Asteroida

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Asteroida

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As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered that were found to have volatile -rich surfaces similar to comets, these came to be distinguished from the objects found in the main asteroid belt.

In this article, the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System, including those co-orbital with Jupiter. Millions of asteroids exist, many are shattered remnants of planetesimals , bodies within the young Sun's solar nebula that never grew large enough to become planets.

However, other orbital families exist with significant populations, including the near-Earth objects. Individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra , with the majority falling into three main groups: C-type , M-type , and S-type.

These were named after and are generally identified with carbon-rich , metallic , and silicate stony compositions, respectively.

Asteroids are somewhat arbitrarily differentiated from comets and meteoroids. In the case of comets, the difference is one of composition: while asteroids are mainly composed of mineral and rock, comets are primarily composed of dust and ice.

Furthermore, asteroids formed closer to the sun, preventing the development of cometary ice. Only one asteroid, 4 Vesta , which has a relatively reflective surface , is normally visible to the naked eye, and this is only in very dark skies when it is favorably positioned.

Rarely, small asteroids passing close to Earth may be visible to the naked eye for a short time.

The first asteroid to be discovered, Ceres , was originally considered to be a new planet. In the early second half of the nineteenth century, the terms "asteroid" and "planet" not always qualified as "minor" were still used interchangeably.

Discovery timeline: [23]. On subsequent nights, the sky would be charted again and any moving object would, hopefully, be spotted.

The first object, Ceres , was not discovered by a member of the group, but rather by accident in by Giuseppe Piazzi , director of the observatory of Palermo in Sicily.

He discovered a new star-like object in Taurus and followed the displacement of this object during several nights.

Later that year, Carl Friedrich Gauss used these observations to calculate the orbit of this unknown object, which was found to be between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

Piazzi named it after Ceres , the Roman goddess of agriculture. Three other asteroids 2 Pallas , 3 Juno , and 4 Vesta were discovered over the next few years, with Vesta found in After eight more years of fruitless searches, most astronomers assumed that there were no more and abandoned any further searches.

However, Karl Ludwig Hencke persisted, and began searching for more asteroids in Fifteen years later, he found 5 Astraea , the first new asteroid in 38 years.

He also found 6 Hebe less than two years later. After this, other astronomers joined in the search and at least one new asteroid was discovered every year after that except the wartime year Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J.

Hind , A. Luther , H. Goldschmidt , J. Chacornac , J. Ferguson , N. Pogson , E. Tempel , J. Watson , C. Peters , A. Borrelly , J. Palisa , the Henry brothers and A.

In , Max Wolf pioneered the use of astrophotography to detect asteroids, which appeared as short streaks on long-exposure photographic plates.

It was known that there were many more, but most astronomers did not bother with them, some calling them "vermin of the skies", [27] a phrase variously attributed to E.

Suess [28] and E. Until , asteroids were discovered by a four-step process. First, a region of the sky was photographed by a wide-field telescope , or astrograph.

Pairs of photographs were taken, typically one hour apart. Multiple pairs could be taken over a series of days. Second, the two films or plates of the same region were viewed under a stereoscope.

Any body in orbit around the Sun would move slightly between the pair of films. Under the stereoscope, the image of the body would seem to float slightly above the background of stars.

Third, once a moving body was identified, its location would be measured precisely using a digitizing microscope.

The location would be measured relative to known star locations. These first three steps do not constitute asteroid discovery: the observer has only found an apparition, which gets a provisional designation , made up of the year of discovery, a letter representing the half-month of discovery, and finally a letter and a number indicating the discovery's sequential number example: FJ The last step of discovery is to send the locations and time of observations to the Minor Planet Center , where computer programs determine whether an apparition ties together earlier apparitions into a single orbit.

If so, the object receives a catalogue number and the observer of the first apparition with a calculated orbit is declared the discoverer, and granted the honor of naming the object subject to the approval of the International Astronomical Union.

There is increasing interest in identifying asteroids whose orbits cross Earth 's, and that could, given enough time, collide with Earth see Earth-crosser asteroids.

The three most important groups of near-Earth asteroids are the Apollos , Amors , and Atens. Various asteroid deflection strategies have been proposed, as early as the s.

The near-Earth asteroid Eros had been discovered as long ago as , and the s brought a flurry of similar objects.

In order of discovery, these were: Amor , Apollo , Adonis , and finally Hermes , which approached within 0.

Astronomers began to realize the possibilities of Earth impact. Two events in later decades increased the alarm: the increasing acceptance of the Alvarez hypothesis that an impact event resulted in the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction , and the observation of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashing into Jupiter.

The U. All these considerations helped spur the launch of highly efficient surveys that consist of charge-coupled device CCD cameras and computers directly connected to telescopes.

Traditionally, small bodies orbiting the Sun were classified as comets , asteroids, or meteoroids , with anything smaller than one meter across being called a meteoroid.

Beech and Steel's paper proposed a meteoroid definition including size limits. In , the term " small Solar System body " was also introduced to cover both most minor planets and comets.

The term "planetule" was coined by the geologist William Daniel Conybeare to describe minor planets, [42] but is not in common use.

The three largest objects in the asteroid belt, Ceres , Pallas , and Vesta , grew to the stage of protoplanets.

Ceres is a dwarf planet , the only one in the inner Solar System. When found, asteroids were seen as a class of objects distinct from comets, and there was no unified term for the two until "small Solar System body" was coined in The main difference between an asteroid and a comet is that a comet shows a coma due to sublimation of near surface ices by solar radiation.

A few objects have ended up being dual-listed because they were first classified as minor planets but later showed evidence of cometary activity.

Conversely, some perhaps all comets are eventually depleted of their surface volatile ices and become asteroid-like. A further distinction is that comets typically have more eccentric orbits than most asteroids; most "asteroids" with notably eccentric orbits are probably dormant or extinct comets.

For almost two centuries, from the discovery of Ceres in until the discovery of the first centaur , Chiron in , all known asteroids spent most of their time at or within the orbit of Jupiter, though a few such as Hidalgo ventured far beyond Jupiter for part of their orbit.

Those located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter were known for many years simply as The Asteroids. Then, when the first trans-Neptunian object other than Pluto , Albion , was discovered in , and especially when large numbers of similar objects started turning up, new terms were invented to sidestep the issue: Kuiper-belt object , trans-Neptunian object , scattered-disc object , and so on.

These inhabit the cold outer reaches of the Solar System where ices remain solid and comet-like bodies are not expected to exhibit much cometary activity; if centaurs or trans-Neptunian objects were to venture close to the Sun, their volatile ices would sublimate, and traditional approaches would classify them as comets and not asteroids.

The innermost of these are the Kuiper-belt objects , called "objects" partly to avoid the need to classify them as asteroids or comets.

The much more distant Oort cloud is hypothesized to be the main reservoir of dormant comets. Other recent observations, such as the analysis of the cometary dust collected by the Stardust probe, are increasingly blurring the distinction between comets and asteroids, [47] suggesting "a continuum between asteroids and comets" rather than a sharp dividing line.

The minor planets beyond Jupiter's orbit are sometimes also called "asteroids", especially in popular presentations. When the IAU introduced the class small Solar System bodies in to include most objects previously classified as minor planets and comets, they created the class of dwarf planets for the largest minor planets — those that have enough mass to have become ellipsoidal under their own gravity.

In the Nice model , many Kuiper-belt objects are captured in the outer asteroid belt, at distances greater than 2. Most were later ejected by Jupiter, but those that remained may be the D-type asteroids , and possibly include Ceres.

Various dynamical groups of asteroids have been discovered orbiting in the inner Solar System. Their orbits are perturbed by the gravity of other bodies in the Solar System and by the Yarkovsky effect.

Significant populations include:. The majority of known asteroids orbit within the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter , generally in relatively low- eccentricity i.

This belt is now estimated to contain between 1. These asteroids may be remnants of the protoplanetary disk , and in this region the accretion of planetesimals into planets during the formative period of the Solar System was prevented by large gravitational perturbations by Jupiter.

The most significant population of trojans are the Jupiter trojans. Although fewer Jupiter trojans have been discovered As of [update] , it is thought that they are as numerous as the asteroids in the asteroid belt.

Trojans have been found in the orbits of other planets, including Venus , Earth , Mars , Uranus , and Neptune. Asteroids that actually cross Earth's orbital path are known as Earth-crossers.

The vast majority, however, are much smaller and are irregularly shaped; they are thought to be either battered planetesimals or fragments of larger bodies.

Vesta is the only main-belt asteroid that can, on occasion, be visible to the naked eye. On some rare occasions, a near-Earth asteroid may briefly become visible without technical aid; see Apophis.

The mass of all the objects of the asteroid belt , lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter , is estimated to be in the range of 2. Of this, Ceres comprises 0.

The number of asteroids increases rapidly as their individual masses decrease. The number of asteroids decreases markedly with size. Although their location in the asteroid belt excludes them from planet status, the three largest objects, Ceres , Vesta , and Pallas , are intact protoplanets that share many characteristics common to planets, and are atypical compared to the majority of irregularly shaped asteroids.

The fourth largest asteroid, Hygiea , appears nearly spherical although it may have an undifferentiated interior [ citation needed ] , like the majority of asteroids.

Between them, the four largest asteroids constitute half the mass of the asteroid belt. Ceres is the only asteroid with a fully ellipsoidal shape and hence the only one that is a dwarf planet.

Vesta, too, has a differentiated interior, though it formed inside the Solar System's frost line , and so is devoid of water; [59] [60] its composition is mainly of basaltic rock with minerals such as olivine.

Pallas is unusual in that, like Uranus , it rotates on its side, with its axis of rotation tilted at high angles to its orbital plane.

Hygiea is the largest carbonaceous asteroid [64] and, unlike the other largest asteroids, lies relatively close to the plane of the ecliptic.

Observations taken with the Very Large Telescope 's SPHERE imager in and , and announced in late , revealed that Hygiea has a nearly spherical shape, which is at consistent both with it being in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus a dwarf planet , or formerly being in hydrostatic equilibrium, or with being disrupted and recoalescing.

Measurements of the rotation rates of large asteroids in the asteroid belt show that there is an upper limit. Very few asteroids with a diameter larger than meters have a rotation period smaller than 2.

However, a solid object should be able to rotate much more rapidly. This suggests that most asteroids with a diameter over meters are rubble piles formed through accumulation of debris after collisions between asteroids.

The physical composition of asteroids is varied and in most cases poorly understood. Ceres appears to be composed of a rocky core covered by an icy mantle, where Vesta is thought to have a nickel-iron core, olivine mantle, and basaltic crust.

Most of the smaller asteroids are thought to be piles of rubble held together loosely by gravity, though the largest are probably solid.

Some asteroids have moons or are co-orbiting binaries : Rubble piles, moons, binaries, and scattered asteroid families are thought to be the results of collisions that disrupted a parent asteroid, or, possibly, a planet.

Asteroids contain traces of amino acids and other organic compounds, and some speculate that asteroid impacts may have seeded the early Earth with the chemicals necessary to initiate life, or may have even brought life itself to Earth also see panspermia.

Composition is calculated from three primary sources: albedo , surface spectrum, and density. The last can only be determined accurately by observing the orbits of moons the asteroid might have.

So far, every asteroid with moons has turned out to be a rubble pile, a loose conglomeration of rock and metal that may be half empty space by volume.

The fact that such large asteroids as Sylvia can be rubble piles, presumably due to disruptive impacts, has important consequences for the formation of the Solar System: Computer simulations of collisions involving solid bodies show them destroying each other as often as merging, but colliding rubble piles are more likely to merge.

This means that the cores of the planets could have formed relatively quickly. The surface of the asteroid appears completely covered in ice.

As this ice layer is sublimating , it may be getting replenished by a reservoir of ice under the surface.

Organic compounds were also detected on the surface. The presence of ice on 24 Themis supports this theory. In October , water was detected on an extrasolar body for the first time, on an asteroid orbiting the white dwarf GD According to one of the scientists, "The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids.

In November , scientists reported detecting, for the first time, sugar molecules , including ribose , in meteorites , suggesting that chemical processes on asteroids can produce some fundamentally essential bio-ingredients important to life , and supporting the notion of an RNA world prior to a DNA-based origin of life on Earth, and possibly, as well, the notion of panspermia.

Most asteroids outside the " big four " Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, and Hygiea are likely to be broadly similar in appearance, if irregular in shape.

Of the big four, Pallas and Hygiea are practically unknown. Vesta has compression fractures encircling a radius-size crater at its south pole but is otherwise a spheroid.

Asteroids become darker and redder with age due to space weathering. Asteroids are commonly categorized according to two criteria: the characteristics of their orbits, and features of their reflectance spectrum.

Many asteroids have been placed in groups and families based on their orbital characteristics. Apart from the broadest divisions, it is customary to name a group of asteroids after the first member of that group to be discovered.

Groups are relatively loose dynamical associations, whereas families are tighter and result from the catastrophic break-up of a large parent asteroid sometime in the past.

A family has also been associated with the plutoid dwarf planet Haumea. Some asteroids have unusual horseshoe orbits that are co-orbital with Earth or some other planet.

Examples are Cruithne and AA The first instance of this type of orbital arrangement was discovered between Saturn 's moons Epimetheus and Janus.

Sometimes these horseshoe objects temporarily become quasi-satellites for a few decades or a few hundred years, before returning to their earlier status.

Both Earth and Venus are known to have quasi-satellites. Such objects, if associated with Earth or Venus or even hypothetically Mercury , are a special class of Aten asteroids.

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